The Science

Brain Parts and Functions

How the Brain Works

What is Neuroplasticity?


Fun Facts

The adult human brain weighs about 3 pounds (1,300-1,400 g).

The total surface area of the cerebral cortex is about 2500 sq. cm (~2.5 ft2).

Approximately 20% of the blood flowing from the heart is pumped to the brain. The brain needs constant blood flow in order to keep up with the heavy metabolic demands of the neurons.

The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum which makes up 85% of the brain's weight. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles.

Brain Parts and Their Functions

Cerebellum and Brainstem

The cerebellum is below and behind the rest of your brain, and works to combine sensory information from the eyes, ears and muscles to help coordinate movement. The brainstem links the brain to the spinal cord. It controls many functions vital to life, such as heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. This area is also important for sleep.

The Inner Brain

Structures deep within the brain control emotions and memories. Known as the limbic system, these structures come in pairs. Each part of this system is duplicated in the opposite half of the brain.


brain diagram

The cerebrum is the largest part of your brain. It's what you probably visualize when you think of brains in general. The outermost layer of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex, the "gray matter" of the brain. Deep folds and wrinkles in the brain increase the surface area of the gray matter, so more information can be processed.

The cerebrum is divided into two halves (hemispheres) by a deep fissure. The hemispheres communicate with each other through a thick tract of nerves, called the corpus callosum, at the base of the fissure. In fact, messages to and from one side of the body are usually handled by the opposite side of the brain.

Lobes of the brain

Your brain's hemispheres are divided into four lobes.